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GEMÜ-ordliste for ventiler og

automatiseringskomponenter

AB mere
​Drugs and Medicines Register of the Federal Republic of Germany. See also Pharmakopoea.
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AB-DDR mere
​Drugs and Medicines Register of the former German Democratic Republic
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Abrasion mere
​Abrasion refers to the wear mechanics between two or more substances or materials. In mechanical equipment, for example, the wear mechanism occurs between a moving shaft and its bearing. In flow technology the wear mechanism occurs as a destructive interaction between a flowing medium (fluid) and a surface which comes into contact with the flowing medium (e.g. steam flows through a valve or a pump pumps sandy water). The intensity of abrasion depends on the cybernetic energy and the particle/droplet potential of a fluid as well as the properties of the contacted surface. The meaning of abrasion is very close to the term "abrade" in its function. Abrasive behaviour exists for example when parts of a flowing medium cannot follow the change in direction of the carrier medium quickly enough, hit an obstruction as a result and transfer their dynamic mass energy to the obstruction (e.g. fluid drops or solids in steams or gases or solids in liquids). If the obstruction is unable to dissipate or compensate this energy, it will be affected or destroyed. Two courses of action are open to limit the abrasive behaviour: To limit the flow velocity of the medium as far as possible (e.g. by throttling the pump performance or by using large cross sections). Making the surfaces either very hard or very soft (e.g. coating with glass or rubber lining). With a hard coating the particles bounce off the surface, with a soft surface the particles spring back. There is no total protection against the abrasive behaviour of fluids so that the regular inspection of the system and its components is necessary in order to be able to change defective devices in time where required. Abrasion is frequently confused with the phenomenon of cavitation. This, however, is the pressure/flow-dependent formation of small vapour bubbles in fluids which can tear material out of a flow body when they suddenly implode (e.g. ship propellers or pipe bends).




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Absolute pressure mere
​Absolute pressure is pressure measured relative to zero pressure (vacuum). The reference point is pressure = 0, i.e. perfect vacuum.
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Absorption mere
This procedure describes an effect in which a substance penetrates into the core of a solid or liquid.
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Actual value "x" mere
​The actual value is the continuously determined actual existent variable x in a control system (e.g. positioning distance/valve position in position controls or temperature, pressure, pH value, turbidity, volumetric flow in process controls).
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Actuator mere
​An actuator is a component for switching a process, e.g. servo-motor, solenoid valve. It intervenes in the process and changes the substance or energy flows. Actuators often convert these into mechanical work, e.g. movement.
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Adsorption mere
​Adsorption is the enrichment of substances at the surface of a body or at interfaces
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AISI mere
​American Iron Steel Institute
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AMA Fachverband für Sensorik e.V. mere
​Founded in 1980 as "Arbeitsgemeinschaft Messwertaufnehmer"(consortium for measured value indicators). Represents the interests of all groups involved in the field of sensor system processes.  
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Ambient temperature mere
​Symbol: t ambient Is the prevailing temperature of the ambient atmosphere on a device (e.g. a pump or a valve). Since the ambient temperature may fluctuate the possible occasional temperature peaks must also be considered in addition to the largely prevailing ambient temperature when assessing whether a device can be used. The operating and ambient temperatures are in direct relation with the temperature resistance of a device. If the manufacturer’s specifications are insufficient for an assessment or incomplete, proceed according to the temperature formula for devices. The formula can only be used if the actual ambient temperature is above 20 °C. It must be noted, however, that the manufacturer‘ specifications have priority. It the ambient temperature is below 20 °C, the formula does not work.   Operating temp.max.safe function = (operating temp.max. manufacturer spec. + 20 °C) - ambient temp.actual


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AMWHV mere
see GMP​
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ANSI mere
​American National Standards Institute
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APC mere
​Advanced Process Control is a superior method for controlling processes. It is used to control reactors and centrifuges as well as start-up, load change and product switching processes. ApC can help to minimize energy consumption, raw material consumtion and fluctuations of a process.
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Aqua ad injectabile (WFI) mere
Water for Injection purposes. Pyrogen-free, sterile water. WFI water according to DAB must be produced by distillation. WFI water according to USP can be made by reverse osmosis combined with an ion exchange or ultra-filtration. 
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Aqua demineralisata mere
​Demineralised water See D-Water and DI Water.
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Aqua pro injectione mere
​See Aqua ad injectabile (WFI)
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Aquapurifica mere
​Purified water Made for example by distillation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis or ultra-filtration from drinking water. No direct demand for sterility in accordance with drinking water quality.
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Aseptic mere
​Germ-free See Aseptics  
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Aseptic preparation mere
​Operating technique for manufacturing and processing products which cannot be sterilised later. Avoidance of microbial contamination by combining suitable methods, e.g. the use of a sterile process technology and use of germ-free materials.
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Aseptics mere
​Knowledge of freedom from germs, e.g. working under aseptic conditions. Originally avoidance of sepsis (blood poisoning), today the avoidance of microbial contamination both in medical applications, e.g. during operations and in the manufacture of sterile products.
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ASME mere
​American Society of Mechanical Engineers Issues the BPE (Bio Processing Equipment Standard).
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ASTM mere
​American Society of Testing Materials
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ATEX mere
​Is the generally used working title/generic term for the European regulations 94/9/EC (equipment and manufacturer-oriented) and 99/92/EC (plant and owner-oriented) which are concerned with the handling of explosive environments in general (Atmospheres explosibles). In this context, national regulations concentrated in the past especially on the standardisation of electrically powered devices which was generally known under the term "EX-protection". However, other factors may also represent a source of danger. Certain materials are susceptible to dangerous static charges for example and hot surfaces may also act as ignition sources. Therefore, since 2003, the European Community has been passing laws to govern the overall assessment to protect its citizens/workers. The Directive 94/9/EC ATEX 95a (formerly 100a) exactly standardises the primary and secondary explosion protection. Primary means the avoidance, prevention or restriction of explosive atmospheres (the responsibility of the plant owner). Secondary means prevention of an explosion by using suitable technical means in the presence of ignition sources or ignitable materials (the responsibility of the equipment manufacturer). For this the danger areas (primary) are divided into zones and classified in explosion technical groups so that the prevailing danger situation can be clearly assessed and defined. To ensure the explosion protection of the planned/used devices, machines and parts (secondary) two main groups are distinguished which are defined on the one hand in the standard for electrical appliances DIN EN 50014 (and following) and on the other hand in the standard for non-electrical appliances DIN EN 13463-1. If a device, machine or single part is to be used in an explosive environment, the owner must first assess and classify the special situation. The entire equipment for this area is then procured based on this. The equipment/component providers are obliged to submit the appropriate conformity/applicability declarations if they are entitled to do so according to pertinent regulations and if the product meets requirements. The observance and implementation of other regulations and standards may be necessary for this. This always differs depending on the device (e.g. pressure equipment directive, regulations for electrical and electronic equipment, machine directive etc.).

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Attestation for sterilisation mere
​See sterile test and validation
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B-value mere
​Dimensionless number Value used in the food and dairy industry for determining the extermination effect in sterilisation processes. Siehe auch F-value.
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Bacteria mere
​Single-cell microscopic life forms / micro-organisms without a cell core (procaryonts) which reproduce by division. Procaryontic single-cell organisms are organisms which are distinguishable by their form, growth conditions and metabolism. The bacteria are divided into many different types and families. They can transfer diseases to humans (e.g. the bacterium borrelia burgdorferi which is transmitted by tick bites and which causes Lyme borreliosis) or may be important for a healthy bowel flora and therefore indispensable for humans (the bowel bacterium E.coli). The first molecular biology experiments and later genetic engineering experiments were made on the E.coli bacterium. The remnants of dead bacteria are often as dangerous as the bacterium itself in pharmaceutical application.
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Bacteriology mere
​Knowledge of bacteria
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Bacteriostatic mere
​Retardant to bacterial growth Bacteriostatically active materials retard or prevent bacterial growth.
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BAM mere
Federal Institute for Material Research and Testing
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Batch mere
​A product quantity produced in one or more processes which is considered homogeneous (product with identical properties).
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BBD mere
​Best before dateSee also DIN 10 503
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Benchmarking mere
​Bench marking is a method of assessing the performance of a company, for example based on predefined characteristics in order to create comparability. These benchmarks indicate strength and weaknesses in individual areas and offer the possibility of optimization. 
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BfArM mere
Federal Institute for Pharmaceutical and Medical Products
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Biofilms mere
​Biofilms are large accumulations of bacteria and other micro-organisms which are bound in a sticky mass of intertwined polysaccharide fibres which connect cells and bind them at the surface. The micro-organism contamination of materials used in watery pharmaceutical and biotechnical production systems is well documented. There would be no organically arranged tissue without biological adhesion. Biofilm contamination thrives everywhere and keeping it under control or even exterminating it in a sterile environment is at best difficult and at worst impossible. Stubborn biofilm contamination can resist cleaning/disinfection efforts with chemicals (cleaning in place – CIP), antibiotics, eddy current abrasion and heat (sterilisation-in-place – SIP). The presence of the biofilm contamination in pharmaceutical and biotechnical production systems threatens production flows, aseptic transfer and potentially might even affect the health of customers who use the products which come from the affected plant.
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Biofilters mere
​Are biologically active filters for cleaning various substances, e.g. through micro-organisms. They are often used in sewage treatment plants. Biologial filters break down substances into different components, depending on the micro-organism culture.
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Bioreactor mere
​Is the main area of interest in the biological production of substances. In a bioreactor, micro-organisms bring about intentional reactions or changes, depending on the purpose. A bioreactor is not only useful for production of a single procuct, but can produce several products through several stages and procedures.
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Biotechnology mere
​The integrated application of biochemistry, microbiology and process engineering with the aim of achieving the technical exploitation of the potential of micro-organisms, cell and tissue cultures. Biotechnology refers to the study of all methods with which life forms from single-cell organisms to highly developed animals are used for technical purposes. Some biotechnical methods are very, very old. Yoghurt and cheese were manufactured 3,200 years before Christ in the region now known as Iraq (Mesopotamia). Beer or yoghurt are just as much biotechnological products as genetically engineered Interferon.


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Boundary layer fauna mere
​Biological coating on surfaces by micro-organisms, e.g. bacteria and fungi
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Bursting disc mere
​Is a safety organ, which by bursting creates a greater pressure release cross-section in the event of excessive pressure, e.g. an explosion, and releases pressure into the atmospere in this way. The bursting disc is usually made of metal or graphite.
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Bypass mere
​A bypass is a diversion of the actual route so that various properties can be measured at places where measurement is not possible at the desired location.
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